Pneumothorax: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Pneumothorax, commonly called a collapsed lung, can be a painful and worrying experience.

In a healthy body, the lungs are touching the walls of the chest. A pneumothorax occurs when air gets into the space between the chest wall and the lung, called the pleural space.

The pressure of this air causes the lung to collapse on itself. The lung may fully collapse, but most often only a part of it collapses. This collapse can also put pressure on the heart, causing further symptoms.

A few different things can cause pneumothorax, and symptoms can vary widely. Doctors can help to diagnose and treat pneumothorax.

Causes

The causes of pneumothorax are categorized as either primary spontaneous, secondary spontaneous, or traumatic.

Primary spontaneous

If air gets in between the lung and the chest wall, it can cause the lung to collapse in on itself.

A primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) occurs when the person has no known history of lung disease. The direct cause of PSP is unknown.

At-risk groups for primary spontaneous pneumothorax include:

  • tobacco or cannabis smokers
  • tall men
  • people ages 15-34
  • people with a family history of pneumothoraces

The most important risk factor associated with PSP is smoking tobacco. A review in the medical journal BMJ noted that men who smoke tobacco are 22 times more likely to develop PSP than nonsmokers. Women who smoke tobacco are nine times more likely than nonsmokers to develop PSP.

If treated promptly, PSP is usually not fatal.

Secondary spontaneous

Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) can be caused by a variety of lung diseases and disorders.

SSP carries more serious symptoms than PSP, and it is more likely to cause death.

Lung diseases that may increase the risk of developing pneumothorax include:

  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • cystic fibrosis
  • severe asthma
  • lung infections, such as tuberculosis and certain forms of pneumonia
  • sarcoidosis
  • thoracic endometriosis
  • pulmonary fibrosis
  • lung cancer and sarcomas involving the lungs

Certain connective tissue disorders may also cause SSP. These disorders include:

  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • polymyositis and dermatomyositis
  • systemic sclerosis
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Marfans syndrome

Under certain conditions, children are also at risk for SSP. Causes of SSP in children include:

  • congenital malformations
  • inhaling a foreign object
  • measles
  • echinococcosis

The risk may also be higher if a family member has previously experienced SSP.

Traumatic pneumothorax

A traumatic pneumothorax can occur without a noticeable wound, such as while scuba diving or after an explosion.

A traumatic pneumothorax is the result of an impact or injury. Potential causes include blunt trauma or an injury that damages the chest wall and pleural space.

One of the most common ways this occurs is when someone fractures a rib. The sharp points of the broken bone can puncture the chest wall and damage lung tissue. Other causes include sports injuries, car accidents, and puncture or stab wounds.

A traumatic pneumothorax can occur even if there is no noticeable wound on the chest. This is common in people who have experienced a blast trauma from an explosion.

Scuba divers have to take precautions when underwater to prevent pneumothorax. When divers breathe from a compressed air tank, they experience different levels of pressure from the water and the air itself. The force of these different pressures can cause damage to the lungs, which may take the form of a pneumothorax.

Certain medical procedures may also lead to traumatic pneumothorax. Inserting a catheter into a vein in the chest or taking a sample of lung tissue may lead to a pneumothorax. Doctors will often monitor people after these procedures to catch any early signs that may need treatment.

Tension pneumothorax

Any of these types of pneumothorax can turn into a tension pneumothorax. This is caused by a leak in the pleural space that resembles a one-way valve.

As a person inhales, the air leaks into the pleural space and becomes trapped. It cannot be released during an exhale. This process leads to increased air pressure in the pleural space that is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment.

Symptoms

Symptoms of pneumothorax may hardly be noticeable at first and can be confused with other disorders.

The symptoms of pneumothorax can vary from mild to life-threatening and may include:

  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain, which may be more severe on one side of the chest
  • sharp pain when inhaling
  • pressure in the chest that gets worse over time
  • blue discoloration of the skin or lips
  • increased heart rate
  • rapid breathing
  • confusion or dizziness
  • loss of consciousness or coma

Some cases of pneumothoraces have almost no symptoms. These can only be diagnosed with an X-ray or another type of scan. Others require emergency medical attention. Anyone experiencing the symptoms above should contact their doctor or seek immediate medical help.

Diagnosis

Diagnosing pneumothorax can be complicated due to the variety of symptoms and causes.

In non-emergency situations, doctors will first physically examine a person to look for signs of the disorder. They may tap on their chest to check for abnormal sounds or listen to their breathing through a stethoscope.

A doctor will usually use an X-ray to look for signs of a collapsed lung.

Doctors will also ask someone about their medical history and habits, such as smoking. They may also ask about any family history of lung disorders.

Imaging is an important part of most diagnoses. Doctors use X-rays to take images of the chest and look for signs of a collapsed lung. A technician takes the X-ray while the person inhales fully and holds their breath.

The size of the pneumothorax is usually measured as the space between the lung and chest wall. The size of the pneumothorax often determines how it is treated.

CT scans are used to get a better picture of the lung than an X-ray provides. Doctors often use CT scans in trauma situations when they need an accurate image of a puncture wound or other damage for treatment.

Ultrasound is used in some situations and can provide a quick way to view the size and severity of a pneumothorax. It may be more sensitive than X-rays for examining blunt trauma.

In cases of a severe tension pneumothorax, the evidence of the collapsed lung is often very obvious and requires immediate attention to prevent permanent damage or death.

Treatment

Most forms of pneumothorax require medical attention. The extent of this medical attention can vary as much as the disorder itself.

The standard medical treatment usually involves inserting a small tube between the ribs or under the collarbone to release the gas that has built up. This will slowly decompress the lung.

Doctors may prescribe various drugs to numb pain, help remove toxins, or prevent infection in the body. Some people may need oxygen if their lung capacity is deficient.

Surgical treatment may be necessary in some cases, especially in individuals who have had repeated pneumothoraces.

People with SSP are more likely to need medical attention due to the serious nature of the lung diseases associated with the condition. Those with SSP may experience more severe symptoms and face a greater risk of serious complications and death.

Some very small pneumothoraces may heal without any treatment. Doctors may give their patients the option to allow the pneumothorax to heal under supervision without taking any medical or surgical action.

A person who experiences any signs or symptoms should report them to a doctor. They can decide whether medical intervention is necessary to reduce the risk of serious events.

source: medical news online.

Marriage, fatherhood may cause men to gain weight

There is a common belief that once people get married, they begin to pile on the pounds. A new study suggests that this notion may hold some truth, after finding that married men have a higher body mass index than unmarried men.

Additionally, the research reveals that men – but not women – gain weight in the first few years after becoming a parent.

Study co-author Dr. Joanna Syrda, of the School of Management at the University of Bath in the United Kingdom, and colleagues say that their findings help to shed light on the social factors that could lead to weight gain, which may help individuals to avoid becoming overweight or obese.

The study was recently published in the journal Social Science & Medicine.

The researchers came to their findings by analyzing the data of 8,729 heterosexual couples who were part of the 1999-2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, which was originally launched to study family income.

As part of the study, couples were required to provide information on their marital status, body mass index (BMI), and offspring. Data were collected every 2 years.

Married men 3 pounds heavier

The researchers found that, compared with unmarried men, men who were married had a higher BMI, weighing around 1.4 kilograms (3 pounds) more.

Parenthood also appears to affect BMI; the weight of married men increased in the first few years after becoming a father.

However, just prior to and after getting divorced, the researchers identified a reduction in men’s BMI.

The BMI of married women was not influenced by marriage or parenthood, the researchers report.

The team notes that previous studies have suggested that individuals who are single but who are looking for a partner tend to focus more on their fitness than people who are married. They believe that their results support such findings.

Furthermore, the researchers believe that their study strengthens the hypothesis that married people eat richer, more unhealthful foods as a result of greater social engagement.

However, the results oppose studies suggesting that married people are in better health as a result of greater social support from their spouses.

Being mindful after marriage

While further studies are needed to gain a better understanding of how marriage affects weight, the team believes that the current study offers some insight.

“It’s useful for individuals to understand which social factors may influence weight gain, especially common ones such as marriage and parenthood, so that they can make informed decisions about their health and well-being,” says Dr. Syrda.

“For married men who want to avoid BMI increases that will mean being mindful of their own changing motivation, behavior, and eating habits,” she adds.

“Given major public health concerns about obesity, understanding more about the social science factors that can cause weight fluctuation is important.”

A partner’s touch relieves pain, study shows

The touch of our romantic partner helps to alleviate pain, suggest the results of a new study.
Lovers’ heartbeats and respiration patterns tend to synchronize when the partners are simply in each other’s presence. But what does the role of touch play in this synchronization, and what happens when one of the partners is experiencing pain?

Have you ever noticed that when you walk alongside your partner, your steps tend to synchronize? Or that when you speak to a close friend, you tend to adopt the same posture as them?

The scientific name for this is “behavioral synchrony,” and it refers to the human ability to sync up with other people for the sake of living in a society.

Some studies have shown that people are not only able to synchronize their behavior, but that they can also sync up their physiology.

“Interpersonal synchronization” can manifest in various ways. For example, when people watch the same movie, their brain activity synchronizes. Similarly, when lovers stare into each other’s eyes, their hearts quite literally beat as one.

New research carried out by scientists at University of Colorado (CU) Boulder explores the role of touch in driving interpersonal synchronization in the context of pain.

The team was led by Pavel Goldstein, a postdoctoral pain researcher in the Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Lab at CU Boulder, and the findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports.

Dr. Goldstein explains what prompted his research, saying, “My wife was in pain, and all I could think was, ‘What can I do to help her?’ I reached for her hand and it seemed to help. I wanted to test it out in the lab: can one really decrease pain with touch, and if so, how?”

How Important is Hemoglobin?

What is hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin (Hgb) is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen. Oxygen entering the lungs attaches to the hemoglobin in the blood, which carries it to the tissues in the body.

When someone has insufficient red blood cells or the ones they have malfunction, the body is left short of the oxygen it needs to function. This condition is known as Anemia.

Here, we will look at the role of hemoglobin, and how levels of it in the blood are tested. We also examine the main kinds of anemia in more detail and see ways the condition can be prevented.

Each hemoglobin protein can carry four molecules of oxygen, which are delivered throughout the body by red blood cells. Every one of the body’s billions of cells needs oxygen to repair and maintain itself.

Hemoglobin also plays a role in helping red blood cells obtain their disc-like shape, which helps them navigate easily through blood vessels.

How are hemoglobin levels tested?

Hemoglobin levels are measured by conducting a blood test. Hemoglobin, or Hgb, is usually expressed in grams per deciliter (g/dL) of blood. A low level of hemoglobin in the blood relates directly to a low level of oxygen.

In the United States, anemia is diagnosed if a blood test finds less than 13.5 g/dL in a man or less than 12 g/dL in a woman. In children, normal levels vary according to age.

What do high hemoglobin levels mean?

High hemoglobin levels could be indicative of the rare blood disease, polycythemia. It causes the body to make too many red blood cells, causing the blood to be thicker than usual. This can lead to clots, heart attacks, and strokes. It is a serious lifelong condition that can be fatal if it is not treated.

High hemoglobin can also be caused by dehydration, smoking, or living at high altitudes, or it can be linked to other conditions, such as lung or heart disease.

What do low hemoglobin levels mean?

Low hemoglobin levels usually indicate that a person has anemia. There are several kinds of anemia:

  • Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type. This form of anemia occurs when a person does not have enough iron in their body, and it cannot make the hemoglobin it needs. Anemia is usually caused by blood loss, but can also be due to poor absorption of iron. This can happen, for example, when someone has had gastric bypass surgery.
  • Pregnancy-related anemia is a kind of iron-deficiency anemia, which occurs because pregnancy and childbirth require a significant amount of iron.
  • Vitamin-deficiency anemia happens when there are low levels of nutrients, such as vitamin B12 or folic acid (also called folate), in the diet. These anemias change the shape of the red blood cells, which makes them less effective.
  • Aplastic anemia is a disorder where blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow are attacked by the immune system, resulting in fewer red blood cells.
  • Hemolytic anemia can be the result of another condition, or it can be inherited. It occurs when the red blood cells are broken up in the bloodstream or the spleen.
  • Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition where the hemoglobin protein is abnormal. It means the red blood cells are sickle-shaped and rigid which stops them flowing through small blood vessels.

Anemia can also be caused by other conditions, such as kidney disease and chemotherapy for cancer, which can also affect the body’s ability to make red blood cells.

Newborns have a temporary anemia when they are 6-8 weeks old. This occurs when they run out of the red blood cells they are born with but their bodies have not made new red blood cells. This condition will not affect the baby adversely unless they are sick for some other reason.

Babies can also have anemia from breaking down cells too quickly, which results in yellowing skin, a condition known as jaundice. This often occurs if the mother and baby have incompatible blood types.

Symptoms


A shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, and chest pain may be symptoms of low hemoglobin.

Typical symptoms of low hemoglobin include:

  • weakness
  • shortness of breath
  • dizziness
  • fast, irregular heartbeat
  • pounding in the ears
  • headache
  • cold hands and feet
  • pale or yellow skin
  • chest pain

Who is at risk?

Older people or people who lack iron in their diets can be at risk of developing anemia.

People who do vigorous exercise are also at greater risk, as exertion can lead to a breakdown of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Women who are menstruating or pregnant may also be at increased risk of developing anemia.

People who have chronic health conditions, including autoimmune conditions, liver disease, thyroid disease and inflammatory bowel disease, may have lower hemoglobin levels, which increases the chances of developing anemia.

Hemoglobin levels increase in situations where a person needs more oxygen in their body. Consequently, someone who has lung or kidney disease, who smokes, or is dehydrated, may be at risk of increased hemoglobin levels.

Prevention

iron-rich foods
Eating iron-rich foods may help to prevent anemia.

While many types of anemia cannot be prevented, eating iron-rich foods, such as beef, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts can prevent anemias caused by iron or vitamin deficiencies.

Meat and dairy are good sources of vitamin B12, and folic acid is found in citrus juices, legumes, and fortified cereals.

The American Society of Hematology recommend taking a daily multivitamin to help prevent nutritional anemia’s. Older adults, however, should not take iron supplements for iron-deficiency anemia unless instructed to do so by their doctor.

Smoking cessation and drinking plenty of water can help avoid high hemoglobin levels.

SOURCE:Medical News Today

Breast implants may cause false ECG diagnosis of heart attack

Electrocardiogram recordings are often used to diagnose heart attacks and other conditions. But a new study suggests that in the case of patients with breast implants, the recordings can often be misleading. It recommends that doctors use other tests to confirm any indications.

The study, which was presented recently at the European Society of Cardiology meeting EHRA EUROPACE-CARDIOSTIM 2017, held in Vienna, Austria, is published in the Society’s Europace journal.

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a recording of the heart’s electrical activity that is made using a machine attached to the skin of the chest, arms, and legs.

An ECG can reveal how fast the heart is beating, whether or not the rhythm of the beat is irregular, and the pattern of electrical pulses in each part of the heart.

ECGs are used to diagnose heart disease, heart attack, heart failure, irregular heartbeat, or arrythmia, and other heart conditions.

They are used routinely in clinics, doctor’s surgeries, and outpatient departments. Emergency departments also use them to investigate chest pains.

Implants can disrupt heart readings

Breast implants are used in breast augmentation to enlarge or restore breast size. They can also be used in mammoplasty or reshaping of the breast, as well as in breast reconstruction – following mastectomy, for instance. Most implants are of the saline or silicone-gel type.

In 2016, plastic surgeons carried out nearly 290,500 breast augmentations in the United States, 4 percent more than in 2015.

Dr. Sok-Sithikun Bun, lead author of the new study and a cardiologist at Princess Grace Hospital in Monaco, explains why they carried out their investigation.

“Our experience shows that breast implants make it difficult to see the heart with echocardiography because ultrasound cannot penetrate through the implant. We wanted to find out if implants also disrupt an ECG.”

For the study, 28 women with breast implants and 20 control women of the same age without breast implants underwent ECGs. All the women were healthy and showed no evidence of structural heart disease.

Each ECG was analyzed by two electrophysiologists who were “blinded” about the subjects – that is, they were unaware of key characteristics such as the age and sex of each patient, whether they had breast implants, and whether they had heart disease.

One physiologist declared all the ECGs of the control group to be normal. The other said that one of them was abnormal.

‘Be aware of potentially abnormal ECGs’

When they examined the ECGs of the group with breast implants, one physiologist said that 38 percent of them were abnormal, while the other said that 57 percent of them were abnormal.

Dr. Bun says that since “the main difference between the two groups of women was the breast implants,” he and his colleagues concluded that the abnormal ECG recordings were due to the implants.

“Albeit echocardiography is difficult in women with implants, these measurements indicated that they had normal hearts and no structural heart disease, which suggests that there was no heart problem that could explain the abnormal ECGs,” he adds.

Doctors look at various patterns in an ECG – such as “ST depression” and “T wave inversion” – to diagnose a heart attack.

Dr. Bun says that the pattern that came up the most often in the abnormal ECG recordings of the group with breast implants was “T wave inversion from leads V1 to V4, followed by ST depression.”

“T wave inversion is an unspecific sign but can indicate the presence of coronary artery disease, while ST depression indicates that a patient may have a heart attack,” he explains.

Dr. Bun advises patients to let doctors know if they have breast implants before they undergo an ECG. They should also consider having an ECG before receiving implants so that there is a pre-implant recording on file for comparison later. He concludes:

Doctors should be aware that ECG interpretation can be misleading in patients with breast implants. In case of any doubts regarding the diagnosis, blood tests need to be performed depending on the symptoms.”

source: Medical News Online.

Your Sperm Knows When Your Partner is Cheating

Having doubts about your partner,  finally studies show your sperm is capable of letting you know for sure! Interesting!!!

According to clinical sexologist, Dr. Lindsey Doe, up to 40 per cent of male ejaculate is made up of so-called ‘kamikaze’ or ‘fighter sperm’ designed to prevent another man’s sperm from fertilising the egg.

When a man suspects that his partner is cheating or unfaithful, the number of these aggressive sperm increases to tackle the perceived threat.

Explaining the phenomenon, Doe says, “Researchers have looked into the microscope and seen that maybe we have what are called kamikaze sperm; killer sperm; fighter sperm.

“This is because 40 per cent of sperm that is in an ejaculate are actually designed to fight off another man’s sperm”.

This means the fighter sperm isn’t designed to fertilise the egg. Instead, it’s included purely to prevent another male’s sperm from doing so.

Dr. Doe describes this method of preventing other sperm from reaching the egg as ‘blocking’.

According to Doe, the fighter sperm use their tails as coils to set up traps by weaving them together to create walls and barricades.

Doe added that some fighter sperm would go and attack any sperm it sees as a threat in order to kill them.

These fighter sperm are referred to as ‘kamikaze sperm.’

When males suspect their partners are not being monogamous, Doe said, their body will produce more ‘fighter sperm’ as the threat is perceived to be greater.

This does the job of increasing the level of protection against sperm from other males; but it can significantly reduce the number of sperm whose job it is to fertilise the egg and therefore reduce the chances of the female getting pregnant at all.

However, Dr. Doe did explain that this theory, known as sperm competition, is under debate and some deny happens at all.

 

 

10 Health Hacks

Every single minute someone somewhere has just made a health-related resolution, such as to lose weight, stop smoking, take less alcohol or join the neighborhood health club. While it is common to set high goals, experts say that setting smaller goals could do more for our health.

“Small steps are achievable and are easier to fit into your daily routine,” says James O. Hill, Ph.D., Director of the Center for Human Nutrition at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. “They are less overwhelming than a big, sudden change.”

Here are 10 to try:

1. Stop gaining weight. Even if you gain just a pound or two every year, the extra weight adds up quickly.

2. Take more small steps. Use a pedometer to count your daily steps; then add 2,000, the equivalent of one extra mile. Keep adding steps, 1,000 to 2,000 each month or so, until you take 10,000 steps on most days.

3. Eat breakfast. Breakfast eaters tend to weigh less and have better diets overall. For a filling and nutrition-packed breakfast, top Whole Grain Total® with fresh fruit slices and low-fat or fat-free milk.

4. Switch three grain servings each day to whole grain. If you’re like the average American, you eat less than one whole grain serving a day.

5. Have at least one green salad every day. Eating a salad (with low-fat or fat-free dressing) is filling and may help you eat less during the meal. It also counts toward your five daily cups of vegetables and fruits.

6. Trim the fat. Fat has a lot of calories, and calories count. Purchase lean meats, eat poultry without the skin, switch to lower-fat cheeses, use a nonstick pan with only a dab of oil or butter.

7. Consider calcium by including two or three daily servings of low-fat or fat-free milk or yogurt. Dairy calcium is good for bones and may also help you lose weight.

8. Downsize. The smaller the bag, bottle or bowl, the less you will eat.

9. Lose just 5 to 10 percent of your current weight. The health benefits are huge-lower blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides.

10. Keep track of your eating. Write down what you eat over the next couple of days and look for problem spots. Often, just writing things down can help you eat less.

Mindy Hermann.

Live Long By Eating Healthy

To accomplish a healthier status and preserve weight diet must combine with exercise, since one without the other will not work. The body and mind is intricate, however both work together to manufacture results. Many experts, including theorists, doctors, scientist, and philosophers are continuing to find answers to the body’s functions.

Beauty, health, and nutrition are all included. If you eat a balanced diet you will be able to continue your physique and glowing beauty externally and good health inside. A balanced diet is one that provides all the nutrients you need, the right amount of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat.

To achieve goals you need to ensure a good balance in your diet, set up variety into your meal, and practice moderation. The basis of nutrition lies in your height, weight, size, and your daily energy needs. Once you know this you can compute what your daily calorific needs are and set goals for weight maintenance, gain, or loss. By regulating your diet you can be active as well as happy.

Eat plenty of whole fruits, grains, and vegetables. They will supply you with essential vitamins, minerals, and protection from several diseases.

Map to exercise every day. Either walk or take up aerobics, dancercise, or join a gym for the fitness. Exercise will not just burn calories but put a glow into your skin; your body will shine, tone your muscles, and strengthen your bones. Exercises also remove accumulated toxins from your body and make you fit.

Create a time-table for your meals. Never fast, starve yourself, or skip a meal. Eat when your body demands nourishment but not huge quantity.

Read more at :-

http://www.healthsuperstore.com/

Dance To Your Health

We as a world are more aware than ever of the importance of physical fitness to our overall health. While we remain aware of the need for physical activity far too many of us find far too few reasons to incorporate physical activity into our daily lives and routines. There are many reasons that we procrastinate in this particular effort. For some time is the defining factor while others will readily admit that they have no appreciation whatsoever for those activities that come to mind when exercise is considered.

Whatever your reason for not incorporating exercise and physical activity into your daily routine, have you considered dancing for your health? There are all kinds of wonderful reasons to dance though I can think of very few that would be better than dancing for the sake of your health and physical well being. The good news when it comes to dancing is that in most instances it doesn’t feel as though you are getting exercise and the burning of calories doesn’t sting nearly as much when you’re having fun burning them.

Dancing has evolved a great deal and while the history of dance is a long and noble history. Even, one might add, a quite manly history for those men who haven’t considered dancing in the past.

Benefits of Dancing

In addition to burning calories, a good thing for dieters everywhere, dancing also helps strengthen your muscles and bones. It can provide either a low impact or high impact workout according to your wishes and the music you select, it can be entertaining and feel like fun rather than a chore—this means you are more likely to actually do it than many other exercise programs, and it can help tone all areas of your body rather than focusing on one particular area as many exercises do.

Dancing also provides an excellent opportunity to socialize and meet others if you take classes while in the process helping you gain a better sense of balance and grace (those like me who have absolutely no sense of grace could greatly benefit from this alone). Dancing, and the physical activity alone can help you ward off potential illnesses that are often associated with excess weight and too little physical activity. Even as little as thirty minutes of dance 4 days a week can bring about profound results when it comes to your overall health and well being.

More importantly however than any of these benefits of dancing mentioned above dancing is fun. This means that you will enjoy life a little, laugh a little, and accidentally work a little physical fitness into your life without feeling as though you are suffering for the sake of doing so. So many people get very little physical activity because they do not see physical activity as fun.

If you are wondering what sort of dance is right for you, there are many from which to choose. Square dancing is great fun for couples as are ballroom and swing dancing. Line dancing, contra square dancing, clogging, and tap dancing can be great fun in larger groups or as a participant in a class. If you want something a little sexier for your dance efforts you can always try Salsa dancing, Flamenco dancing, or belly dancing.

If you live in or around a relatively large community it is quite likely that you can find classes or teachers for private lessons for each of these forms of dance quite easily. You do want to make sure that anyone you take lessons from knows what they are doing. You can also look in your local paper for square dancing groups or bars or clubs that offer line dancing classes on designated nights during the week.

Whether you have been dancing all your life or are a rank novice when it comes to dancing, this is a great way to bring physical fitness into your life and improving your health without feeling as though you are really working for it or experiencing a sense of dread at the very thought.

4 Outdoor Workout Hazards

Warm weather brings longer workouts and enjoyable surroundings. You can perform your workouts outside in the fresh air instead of staying in the house and looking out of the window while you workout. Although the weather and fresh air are great, there are different outdoor workout hazards you need to acknowledge.

1. Getting Lost

Warm weather makes some people want to explore. Whether you are walking or going for a jog, it is a lot easier to get rerouted from your path than you think. If you plan on exploring a new trail, places, and surroundings, you need to have a map of the area with you. If you are like many people, you do not carry your cell phone with you when you are working out. Aside from not carrying your cell phone, you may not think to let someone know where you are going and the time you plan to return. There are different ways you can avoid getting lost. There is nothing wrong with exploring the outdoors while getting a good workout, but you should let someone know where you are going, carry an up-to-date map of the area you will explore and consider carrying your cell phone. There are many different types of workout clothing available that have pockets specifically designed for holding cell phones and keeping them safe from damage due to the phone falling out of your pocket.

2. Skin Cancer and Sunburn

Do not be so excited to workout in warm weather without applying sunscreen. Sunscreen lotion that has an SPF of 30 or more is best if you plan on being in the sun for a long period of time. The sun may feel great and refreshing on your skin, but the sun gives off UV rays, and these rays damage the skin and have been known to cause skin cancer. Many people damage their skin by failing to apply sunscreen because it is cloudy outside or not as hot as previous days. On cloudy days, the sun can be more potent because it is trying to break through the clouds. UV rays from the sun break down collagen and elastin in your skin, causing the aging process to progress more rapidly than normal. Some people opt not to wear sunscreen because sweat drips in their eyes and causes problems. The good news is that waterproof sunscreen prevents sweating from becoming a problem.

3. Dehydration

Dehydration can become a problem when you are performing your workout routine outside, especially when weather conditions are favorable. If you have diabetes, you are more susceptible to dehydration that other people. Instead of consuming juice and soda to refuel your body and replenish electrolytes you lose while working out, drink as much water as possible.

4. Pollution

Pollution comes in many different forms. Factory fumes, car exhaust, and construction dust are all primary forms of pollution. These pollution types can cause serious health conditions, including lung cancer and asthma. Pollution can damage your lung capacity. You should perform your workout and similar activities during early morning hours and not industrial areas